SDLC Models in Software Engineering | Prototype Model in SDLC

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Written by Niel Patel · 7 min read >
first step in software development life cycle

A system development life cycle, or SDLC, is an ongoing process that combines various actions that comprise an organized information technology infrastructure. It is a lengthy concept in the vast field of IT.

  • What are software life cycle models in software engineering?
  • Waterfall Software Development
  • Stages of System Development Life Cycle
  • Agile Methodologies for the SDLC
  • Waterfall-Agile Hybrid Software Development
  • Security in the SDLC
  • Finding an SDLC Model That Works

This term dates back many decades and refers to when businesses were considerably more centralized. SDLC has become a fundamental part of how custom software development companies produce software solutions as IT as a profession and IT services as an industry has matured.

This article takes a close look at system development life cycle models. By reading it, you will learn what an SDLC is, the seven stages of the system development life cycle, and why it is important.

Let’s get started with this article.

What is software life cycle models in software engineering?

From conception through conclusion, a system development life cycle (SDLC) is a systematic project management model that sets out the phases needed in establishing an IT system.

At all seven stages of the system development life cycle, the aim is to provide a rising program that meets or surpasses the customers’ requirements while maintaining budget and schedule restrictions.

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7 Stages of System Development Life Cycle

A system development life cycle is a process framework that depicts the stages of technology planning and application. Each development process step is critical and varies in-depth, resources need, and anticipated functionality.

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There are seven stages to a system development life cycle: Let’s have a look at each one separately now.

  1. Planning
  2. Analysis
  3. Design
  4. Development
  5. Testing and Integration
  6. Implementation and Release 
  7. Maintenance
  1. Planning

The first step in the software development life cycle is Planning, the most crucial element of the SDLC process. It comprises establishing and specifying the work plan to construct a comprehensive project action plan and analyzing the technology’s situation.

This cycle sets out what will occur during the project’s life cycle and determines whether it will be successful. The quality plan, period, cost, privacy, and other essential problems should all be taken into account at this point.

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  1. Analysis

The analysis process includes gathering all of the precise details needed for a new system and designing the first prototype designs.

This stage, one of the seven phases of the system development life cycle, gives developers the ability to:

  • Describe any sample requirements of the system.
  • Existing designs should be compared against others.
  • Identify finished needs through research and analysis.

Developers commonly generate a set of system requirements or SRS documents. This document provides all of the system’s programming, equipment, and network requirements. When collaborating with other development teams in the same place, this will keep them from withdrawing money funds or resources.

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  1. Design

Before going on to the major programming stage, the concept phase is critical. The programmer will begin by describing the overall qualities of the program, as well as specific components such as:

  • Network needs and standards for networks
  • Databases
  • Interfaces with the system
  • Interactions with users
  • It is also described as a two-step process.

HLD stands for High-Level Design. Designers and experienced developers create the software application design to be constructed. It outlines how each element, as well as every feature of the system, should work. Only the design will be shown, not the content.

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  1. Development

The process stage is when developers start coding and constructing the program regarding the design documents and requirements that were prepared previously.

The product program is composed in compliance with the design article’s requirements throughout these seven stages of the development life – cycle. In theory, all primary research and designing should make the actual development process quite straightforward.

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Developers will utilize numerous tools like translators, toolchains, and processors while adhering to the organization’s coding norms.

Common programming languages include C++, PHP, and other similar languages. Developers will choose the right computer code regarding the project specifications and requirements.

  1. Testing and Integration

The process does not end with the creation of software.

It must then be fully tested to verify that no problems exist and also that the finished quality is not damaged in any way.

During the testing step, developers will go through their technology with a fine-tooth comb, looking for any faults or errors that need to be noted, updated, and tested regularly.

The software must comply with the SRS article’s quality requirements.

Common programming languages include C++, PHP, and other similar languages. Developers will choose the right programming code regarding the project specifications and requirements.

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  1. Implementation and Release 

After testing, the app’s overall design will take shape. Developers will incorporate other system development life cycle models into the main source code, often using training environments to uncover flaws or problems in the seven phases of the planning phase of the system project life cycle.

Finally, the data system will be created and integrated into its surroundings. The software is regarded market-ready after it passes this stage and may be delivered to any end-user.

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  1. Maintenance

When software is published, the SDLC somehow doesn’t terminate. Developers must immediately go into standby mode and start practicing any required processes to handle concerns raised by end-users.

After the program has been launched, developers are responsible for implementing any changes that the program may require.

This might involve correcting new issues that occur as a consequence of user feedback and dealing with flaws that were not acceptable before launch. Larger systems, compared to smaller systems, may demand more maintenance stages.

Software Development Life Cycle .PDF

prototype model in sDLC

prototype model in sDLC

According to the prototype paradigm, a working prototype of the system must be constructed before actual software development may begin. A prototype is a scaled-down version of the system. Compared to genuine software, a prototype frequently becomes a relatively rudimentary replica of the existing system, with limited functional capabilities, low reliability, and inefficient performance.

Steps of prototype model in sDLC

  1. Requirement Gathering and Analyst
  2. Quick Decision
  3. Build a Prototype
  4. Assessment or User Evaluation
  5. Prototype Refinement
  6. Engineer Product

In SDLC, a prototype model is creating a working replica of a product or system that needs to be engineered. As stated below, it is used to get consumer input and provides a small copy of the final product.

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System Development Life Cycle Models

We’ll compare a couple of similar prevalent SDLC models and one sub-model after learning the seven phases in the planning phase of the system development life cycle – Waterfall, Agile, and data system development life cycle, to mention a few. Each has its own set of benefits and drawbacks that must be evaluated before deciding.

The Life Cycle of a Waterfall Model System

One of the early SDLC models, the Waterfall model, is a continuous, unified design common in IT product innovation that emphasizes the significance of moving from one phase to another. Before going on to the following stage, each one must be finished in its entirety; once completed, a stage cannot be returned.


  • Simple to understand and put into practise
  • There are obviously identified deadlines and goals.
  • data that is easy to understand
  • The need of proper programming habits is emphasised.
  • Establishes a solid basis.


  • Complex or instrument jobs are not recommended.
  • When it regards to changes in scope, they are quite strict.
  • It’s tough to estimate time and money precisely.
  • A working product appears only afterwards throughout the cycle.

Below are the well known SDLC models in 2022

  • Waterfall Model
  • Iterative Model
  • Spiral Model
  • V-Model
  • Big Bang Model

Methodology for the Agile System Development Life Cycle

Since it is a visual and dynamic framework, Agile has substituted the Waterfall system development life cycle approach as the primary driving reason behind computer programming in the vast majority of organizations across sectors.

This process produces numerous lifecycles, throughout which each version is tested, issues are fixed, and users’ feedback is received. It comprises an incremental approach, continual learning, and chance tolerance.


  • Allows for quick prototyping and testing.
  • Problems are quickly detected and resolved.
  • Changes or enhancements are welcomed.
  • Face-to-face contact is critical, as is continual feedback.
  • The relevance of design and documentation is neglected.
  • Durability


  • Employees must have experience designing rapid technology in the past.
  • Layout and data aren’t given as much weight as they should be 
  • A supervisor with experience in agile software development is needed.
  • There was no clue how the finished version would appear when development began.

Benefits of Software Development Life Cycle Models

Both for virtual and non-digital systems, the System Development Life Cycle Model is a process framework. Understanding the advantages and disadvantages of a development lifecycle can help you make the best option for your system.

The seven steps of the Development Of The System provide a variety of advantages to development studios that use them correctly.

Well Defined Goals

Designers have a firm understanding of the goals they need to accomplish and the outputs they need to finish in a particular amount of time, decreasing the risk of losing time and money.

Proper Testing before Installation is mandatory.

SDLC models include democratic accountability to guarantee that all technology is adequately tested before merging into bigger source code.

The Developmental Phases Are Easily Specified

Developers can’t go on to the next era until it has been finished and authorized by authority.

Members’ Flexibility

Since SDLCs include well-structured documentation outlining program protocols and outcomes, team members may leave and be relatively easily replaced.

Perfection Is a Real Possibility

The SDLC is meant to reflect on itself at all levels. As a result, SDLC models may help projects iterate and improve until they are virtually perfect.

No single member of the team has the power to impact the operation

Because SDLCs depend largely on paperwork and rules, it’s a collective effort, and even the loss of a key employee won’t compromise the project’s schedule.

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The Importance Of The Life Cycle Of System Development

Using software development life cycle models reduces the challenge of creating a program from scratch. It’s crucial to stick to the Development Of The System phases since they help turn a project’s idea into a fully functioning and operational framework.

In addition to the technical components of system development, SDLC helps with process creation, modification monitoring, customer experience, and policy. An SDLC also allows for advanced planning, budgeting, and staffing choices, setting goals, assessing performance, and verifying objectives at each stage of the process to enhance the quality of the final output.

The capacity to prepare advance and review an existing software project’s structured segments and goals is another key benefit of employing a software development life cycle.

Main objective pathways don’t have a similar fits-all research method; instead, they adjust and respond to customer requirements. That’s why a well-defined strategy for determining costs and workforce decisions, providing goals and results, measuring performance, and applying verification marks at every stage of the software development life cycle to maintain high standards is vital.


When developing a new product, it’s necessary to follow the seven phases of the system development life cycle models. It’s critical to know how well an SDLC can satisfy the general criteria and assist obtain the best outcome before beginning the creation of a new system. Choosing the right SDLC will help you construct the system you need quickly and successfully. Consequently, IT consulting firms may function in a controlled and well-organized environment, developing new solutions in a systematic and planned manner.

What is the first step in the software development life cycle?

Requirement gathering.

What is the last step in the software development life cycle?


How many stages in the software development life cycle?

There are 7 Stages in SDLC.

What are the advantages of the prototype model?

1. Reduce the risk of incorrect user requirements.
2. Good where requirements is changing/uncommitted.
3. Support early product marketing.
4. Reduce Maintenance costs.

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